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直接引语和间接引语的转换
分类:语法详解 作者:本站原创

直接引语和间接引语的转换,会有人称、时态和句型等的变化。具体解析如下:

一、人称变化 

根据说话人和说话对象的不同,人称有时变,有时不变,主要根据句意而定。

Tom said, “I will give the book to Ann.” 汤姆说:“我会把书给安妮。”

→Tom said he would give the book to Ann. 汤姆说他会把书给安妮。(说话人将汤姆的话转述给他人)

→Tom said he would give the book to you. 汤姆说他会把书给你。(说话人将汤姆的话转述给安妮)

→Tom said he would give the book to me. 汤姆说他会把书给我。(安妮将汤姆的话转述给他人)

→You said you would give the book to me. 你说你会把书给我。(安妮将汤姆的话转述给汤姆)

→I said I would give the book to her. 我说我会把书给她。(汤姆将说过的话转述给他人)

→I said I would give the book to you. 我说我会把书给你。(汤姆将说过的话转述给安妮)


人称的变化(“一随主,二随宾,第三人称不更新”)

“一随主”是指在直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰,从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化。

 eg. She said, "My brother wants to go shopping with me." 

  →She said her brother wanted to go shopping with her.


“二随宾”是指直接引语变间接引语时,若从句中的主语是第二人称或被第二人称所修饰,从句中的人称要跟引号外的主句的宾语一致。如果引号外的主句没有宾语,也可以用第一人称。 

eg. He said to Tina,"Your cat is very cute." 

  →He told Tina that her cat was very cute.


“第三人称不更新”是指直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语及宾语是第三人称或被第三人称所修饰,从句中的人称一般不需要变化。

eg. Mr. Smith said, "Jack is a good worker."

→Mr. Smith said Jack was a good worker. 


二、时态的变化(时态倒退原则)

1.直接引语转化为间接引语时,主句谓语动词若是过去时态,间接引语中的动词时态也要变成相应的过去时态。情态动词也要作出相应变化,以体现时态的变化。


直接引语的时态 间接引语的时态

一般现在时 一般过去时

现在进行时 过去进行时

一般将来时 过去将来时


一般过去时

过去完成时  过去完成时

现在完成时


can

could could


may

might might


will

would would


shall

should should


must had to/must


She said, “I am good at Chinese.” 她说:“我擅长中文。”(直接引语:一般现在时)

She said she was good at Chinese. 她说她擅长中文。(间接引语:一般过去时)


He said, “I am working.” 他说:“我正在工作。”(直接引语:现在进行时)

He said he was working. 他说他正在工作。(间接引语:过去进行时)


They said, “We are going to go shopping.” 他们说:“我们将去购物。”(直接引语:一般将来时)

They said they were going to go shopping. 他们说他们将去购物。(间接引语:过去将来时)


I said, “I called you.” 我说:“我打电话给你了。”(直接引语:一般过去时)

I said I had called her. 我说我已经打电话给她了。(间接引语:过去完成时)


Jack said, “I have finished my work.” 杰克说:“我已经完成了我的工作。”(直接引语:现在完成时)

Jack said he had finished his work.杰克说他已经完成了他的工作。(间接引语:过去完成时)


Andrew told me, “I had lived here for months by 1999.” 安德鲁告诉我:“在1999年之前我已经在这里住了几个月了。” (直接引语:过去完成时)

Andrew told me that he had lived here for months by 1999. 安德鲁告诉我在1999年之前他已经在这里住了几个月了。间接引语:过去完成时)


Toby asked his father, “Can I come?” 托比问他父亲:“我可以来吗?”

Toby asked his father if he could come. 托比问他父亲他是否可以来。


John asked his teacher, “May I go?” 约翰问他的老师:“我可以走吗?”

John asked his teacher if he might go. 约翰问他的老师他是否可以走。


Edgar said, “I will marry you.” 埃德加说:“我会娶你。”

Edgar said he would marry me.埃德加说他会娶我。


2.间接引语中时态不变的情况

A.若主句动词时态是现在时态(如一般现在时、现在进行时)或将来时态,间接引语中时态不变

She says, “I like playing the piano.” 她说:“我喜欢弹钢琴。”

She says she likes playing the piano. 她说她喜欢弹钢琴。


I will say, “I was sleeping.” 我会说:“我当时正在睡觉呢。”

I will say I was sleeping. 我会说我当时正在睡觉呢。


B.若引语表示客观事实或真理,间接引语中用一般现在时态

He said, “Summer comes after spring.” 他说:“春天过后是夏天。”

He said summer comes after spring. 他说春天过后是夏天。


The teacher said, “Where there is a will, there is a way.” 老师说:“有志者事竟成。”

The teacher said that where there is a will there is a way. 老师说有志者事竟成。


C.若引语所述的动作或状态现仍存在,间接引语中时态可不变

 Steven said, “Mary is busy preparing for the exam.”史蒂芬说:“玛丽正忙于备考。”

Steven said Mary is busy preparing for the exam.史蒂芬说玛丽正忙于备考。(现在仍忙于备考)


John said, “I am at home.” 约翰说:“我在家。”

John said he is at home. 约翰说他现在在家。(约翰现在还在家里) 


Jake said, “My little brother always goes to work by bike.” 杰克说:“我的弟弟经常骑自行车去上班。”

Jake said his little brother always goes to work by bike. (现在仍然经常骑自行车去上班)


D.直接引语是过去进行时,变为间接引语时,时态不变

Tom said, “ I was sleeping.” 汤姆说:“我当时正在睡觉。”

Tom said he was sleeping. 汤姆说他当时正在睡觉。


Ann said, “I was washing the clothes.” 安妮说:“我当时正在洗衣服。”

Ann said she was washing the clothes. 安妮说她当时正在洗衣服。


E.直接引语中若有表示过去的具体某年某日的时间状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变

Spencer said, “I was born on August 6, 1998.” 史宾赛说:“我出生于1998年8月6日。”

Spencer said she was born on August 6, 1998.史宾赛说她出生于1998年8月6日。


Kate said, “The meeting was held on May 5, 2000.” 凯特说:“会议举行于2000年5月5日。”

Kate said the meeting was held on May 5, 2000. 凯特说会议举行于2000年5月5日。

F. 直接引语中的情态动词没有过去式(ought to/had better/used to...)或者已经是过去式(could/should/would/might...)

eg. Peter said, "You had better come here today."

 → Peter said I had better come there that day. 



三、时间状语、地点状语和指示代词的变化

直接引语中 间接引语中

now现在 ------then 当时、那时

today今天 ------that day 那天

tonight今晚------that night那晚

ago以前------ before/earlier以前/之前

yesterday昨天------the day before前一天,头一天

last week/month/year上星期/上月/去年------the week/month/year before 前一星期/前一个月/前一年

tomorrow明天------ the next day第二天

the day after tomorrow后天------ in two days’ time/two days after 两天后

next week/month/year下星期/下月/明年------the next week/month/year第二周/第二个月/第二年

the day before yesterday------two days before/earlier


here这里------there那里


this这个------that那个

this week/month------that week/that month

these这些------those那些

come------go

bring------take


如果在当地转述,here不必改为there,动词come不必改为go;

如果在当天转述,yesterday,tomorrow等时间状语也不必改变。 


He said, “It’s raining now.” 他说:“现在正在下雨。”

He said it was raining then. 他说当时正在下雨。

    

She said, “I can finish the work today.” 她说:“我今天能把工作做完。”

She said she could finish the work that day. 她说她那天能把工作做完。


Wendy said, “I saw the movie yesterday.” 温蒂说:“我昨天看了这部电影。”

Wendy said she had seen the movie the day before. 温蒂说她前一天看过了这部电影。


Ross said, “I will call you tomorrow.’ 罗斯说:“我明天会打电话给你。”

Ross said he would call me the next day. 罗斯说他第二天会打电话给我。


They said, “We will meet you here.” 他们说:“我们会在这里与你会和。”

They said they would meet me there. 他们说他们会在那里与我会面。


She said, “I will wait for you this afternoon.” 她说:“我会在今天下午等你。”

She said she would wait for me that afternoon. 她说她会在那天下午等我。


说话者若是在当时、当地转述,那么时间和地点都未发生变化,那么时间状语和地点状语都不需要变化。

---Will you come here tomorrow, Charlie? 查理,你明天会来这里吗?

---What did you say? 你刚才说什么?

---I asked if you will come here tomorrow. 我刚才问你明天会不会来这里?


 四、不同句型的变化

A.直接引语是陈述句,变为间接引语时,用that连接,语序仍用陈述语序,相当于宾语从句

She said, “I want to buy a cup.” 她说:“我要买一个杯子。”

She said (that) she wanted to buy a cup. 她说她想要买一个杯子。(that宾语从句,that在口语中常省略)


Mary said, “I will go fishing tomorrow.” 玛丽说:“我明天去钓鱼。”

Mary said (that) she would go fishing the next day. 玛丽说她会在第二天去钓鱼。


B.直接引语是一般疑问句、选择疑问句或反意疑问句,变为间接引语时,用if/whether连接,语序用陈述语序

She asked me, “Do you like coffee?” 她问我:“你喜欢咖啡吗?”

She asked me if/whether I liked coffee. 她问我是否喜欢咖啡。


He asked me, “Will you go or stay?” 他问我:“你是离开还是留下呢?”

He asked me whether I would go or stay. 他问我我是要离开还是留下。


They asked him, “She has a new bike, doesn’t she?” 他们问他:“她有一辆新自行车,是吗?”

They asked whether she had a new bike or not. 他们问他她是否有一辆新自行车。


C.直接引语是特殊疑问句,变为间接引语时,用疑问词作连接词,语序用陈述语序

Mandy asked me, “What are you doing?” 曼迪问我:“你在做什么?”

Mandy asked me what I was doing. 曼迪问我当时在做什么。


Charles asked, “Where is my mother?” 查尔斯问道:“我的母亲在哪里?”

Charles asked where his mother was. 查尔斯问他的母亲在哪里。


Joe asked, “When will the movie begin?” 乔问道:“电影何时开始?”

Joe asked when the movie would begin. 乔问电影何时开始。


D.直接引语是祈使句,变为间接引语时,变化如下:

直接引语中------间接引语中

表示请求的祈使句----用ask sb. (not) to do sth.

表示命令的祈使句-----用tell/order sb. (not) to do sth.

Let’s开头的祈使句,表示建议------用suggest+V-ing /从句


He said to her, “Give me a cup of tea, please.” 他说:“请给我一杯茶。”

He asked her to give him a cup of tea. 他叫她给他一杯茶。


The teacher said to me, “Don’t give up!” 老师对我说:“不要放弃!”

The teacher told me not to give up. 老师叫我不要放弃。


The captain said to the soldier, “Stand up!” 队长对战士说:“起立!”

The captain ordered the soldier to stand up.队长命令那名战士起立。


She said, “Let’s go to New York.” 她说:“我们去纽约吧。”

She suggested going to New York. 她建议去纽约。


E.直接引语是感叹句,变为间接引语时,变化如下:

直接引语中----间接引语中

what/how引导的感叹句-----仍然保留原结构,改为that从句,用陈述语序


 She cried, “What a beautiful day it is!” 她叫道:“天气真好啊!”

 She cried what a beautiful day it was. 她叫着说天气真好。

 She cried that it was a beautiful day. 她叫着说天气好。

 He said, “How clever a dog this is!” 他说:“这是一条多么聪明的狗啊!”

 He said how clever a dog that was. 他说那是一条多么聪明的狗。

 He said that was a clever dog. 他说那是一条聪明的狗。


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